Great Generals and Strategists have long believed the information to be the key to victory in any operation or conflict. Many empires have fallen or risen as a result of information. It is clear from General Sun Tzu’s book, The Art of War, that critical information about the enemy will allow us to analyse his strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, and will ultimately provide us with a strategic advantage and triumphs in the wars that are being waged. It also emphasises the importance of information security in winning a battle.
The Internet’s arrival ushered in a fundamental shift in information warfare (IW). It has ushered in a new era in which cyberspace is being used to conduct virtual information operations in order to obtain sensitive data. Information Warfare is a concept in which information is the target and information is the tool used to carry out the information operation. Information operations can be divided into two categories: defensive and offensive.
In every element of society and human connections, information has played a critical role. As a result, it is utilised as a type of warfare in which information gathered through intelligence and cyber espionage is reviewed and manipulated through misinformation campaigns, propaganda, and fake news in order to affect targeted opponents to the state’s advantage or will. In today’s world, contentious geostrategic concerns and power conflicts between states require rivalling states to engage in information warfare, using the essential information of the rival nation. The Three Warfare Strategy and the Assassin Mace Strategy both include information warfare.
China’s Information Warfare Strategy
Information Dominance is the ultimate goal of the Chinese Information Warfare Strategy. The Chinese IW strategy is based on deterring and disrupting the adversary’s ability to use data by focusing on its important information system and decision-making process, which would eventually influence the adversary’s willingness or ability to fight. Conducting cyber espionage and psychological operations to collect sensitive information from the adversary.
Information Operations (IO) are used to strategically implement China’s IW policy across global cyberspace. Information operations are divided into two types: offensive information operations (OIO) and defensive information operations (DIO).
Methods and strategies for disrupting an adversary’s information structure, as well as cyber espionage, are included in offensive information operations. Defensive information operations, on the other hand, were focused on assuring information security, that is, shielding vital information systems from incoming enemy disruption attempts.
Implications for India
According to Cert-In assessments, there has been a slew of serious cyber-attacks linked to Chinese Information Operations against India, targeting both the government and the general population. Since June 1998, when the first known cyber-attack on India was on the computers of BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), the country has been subjected to Chinese cyber-attacks.
Furthermore, after any major events in India, the number of cyberattacks tends to rise. For example, 80,000 cyber-attacks were recorded following the demonetisation of banknotes, and more than 40,300 attacks were reported in the aftermath of the Galwan fight on the Indian internet. In the month following the Galwan Clash, there was a 200 per cent increase in Chinese cyberattacks, most of which were aimed at stealing critical information.
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitYCert-In)’s (Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) has played a critical role by developing proactive measures. India responded positively by banning over 150 apps, including Tik Tok, PUBG, and other utility apps.