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Agriculture is the backbone of livelihood for around 58 per cent of India’s population, according to the India Brand Equity Foundation, due to the country’s predominantly agrarian economy (IBEF). India’s agriculture sector is unquestionably one of the most vital, as one of the country’s greatest employment. However, unlike other industries, agriculture has been hesitant to adopt technology, albeit, in recent years, agritech companies have introduced tech-driven solutions to improve production, improve farmer standard of living, and boost agriculture in India.

Because of restricted mobility and potential hazards, the global COVID-19 epidemic proved to be devastating, disrupting food supply systems all across the world. Furthermore, the crisis highlighted the need for cutting-edge technologies in the industry to improve food supply chain resilience while also contributing to increased efficiency in crop production and distribution. Blockchain is one of the important technologies that have the potential to strengthen farming in India.

Why Blockchain in Agriculture

Seeds, crop nutrition, crop protection, farm equipment, credit, warehousing, transportation logistics, food processing, and food preservation are just a few of the various aspects that make up agriculture.

While food passes through many hands-on its way from the farm to the table, today’s consumers have a strong need to know exactly what they’re consuming. Furthermore, as supply chains have become longer, every user’s worry regarding the origin and travel of the product has grown. With the distributed market architecture, blockchain is the only option to reliably bring traceability to agricultural produce.


How Blockchain could change Agri-Business

Food Traceability

Consumers are more interested than ever in the origins and ingredients of their food. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in demand for organic products, sustainably raised livestock, and locally grown food. Can buyers trust the label to inform them what they’re getting when they put something in their basket? Consumer tastes have evolved, resulting in a significant food fraud sector. Because the retailer or end-buyer has no way of authenticating a product’s provenance, producers can readily sell mislabeled products.

Then there’s the blockchain. Blockchain technology can give trustworthy information on the origination of food items and the exact trip they made from farm to table since it can record unalterable information at every step in the food supply chain. With a single screen swipe, buyers could identify which certified farm their strawberries were collected from or which field their grass-fed beef was reared in.

Provenance, a British company, has successfully demonstrated this type of application. The Provenance app successfully tracked sustainably harvested tuna from Indonesian fishermen’s boats to Japanese restaurants using blockchain technology. After being caught, the fish were tagged and entered into a blockchain system. As a result, every time the fish changed hands, a new entry was made, allowing the final buyer to know exactly where the fish came from. And this is only the start. Consumers might use apps like Provenance to track not only the provenance of a single piece of meat or vegetable but all of the ingredients in a product.


Optimizing the Supply Chain

Enhanced supply chain openness could benefit farmers in addition to assisting customers in making educated purchases. The agricultural supply chain is famously complicated and opaque, with products passing through several hands before arriving at their end location. Farmers have a tough time determining where, for what price, and how much of their produce is finally sold. They are susceptible as a result of their lack of information and are at the whim of traders who can influence order prices and quantities.

By keeping records in real-time and giving participants with up-to-date supply and demand information, blockchain technology can assist to correct this imbalance. Farmers may be able to determine their own pricing and optimize the number of items they sell if they have access to this information. Furthermore, by maintaining a permanent record of participants’ transaction histories, blockchain can make it much easier for parties all over the world to conduct due diligence on one another and successfully complete deals without the use of middlemen or agents.

Better Pricing and Payment Options

Ultimately, blockchain technology can give agri-commerce players lower-cost and faster payment solutions. Farmers are frequently compensated for their commodities for weeks under the present system, and traditional payment methods such as wire transfers can be rather pricey. Some of these inefficiencies can be addressed with blockchain technology. Many developers have already created blockchain-based apps that enable peer-to-peer fund transactions that are inexpensive, safe, and near-instantaneous. Some are even using “smart contracts,” which immediately trigger payments once a certain condition (such as the delivery of goods) is validated by the buyer.


Data Collection and Processing

IoT devices and sensors are being introduced by agritech companies, and blockchain technology can be used to consolidate data on a variety of topics, including seed quality, crop tracking, and the path of crops from the farm to the market.

Apart from increasing transparency in the food supply chain, blockchain technology can also improve security by prohibiting unethical crop production and distribution, which endangers farmers’ livelihoods. Customers will be able to make informed decisions thanks to blockchain’s data collection, and they may even be able to improve the living standard of small-scale farmers who are often in need of food and financial security.

After the data has been gathered, it must be organized and made comprehensible before it can be saved. Blockchain technology allows you to add meta information to your data and structure to make it more useful. It can be saved after that, making compliance enforcement easier. Data compliance ensures that the information gathered is protected and that security procedures are followed.


Transparency and Reliability

The use of intermediaries in the agriculture sector is no longer necessary thanks to blockchain technology. Blockchain helps rebuild and develop confidence between producers and customers by removing the need for a central authority. This can also help to lower market expenses, making it more inexpensive while maintaining a smooth operation.

Blockchain improves security by allowing only validated transactions to take place and provides a reliable method of tracking transactions. Farmers will be smarter, more digitally savvy, and have a better quality of life as a result of agritech businesses using blockchain to develop data-driven facilities.

Blockchain has the potential to have a huge impact on the way agriculture is done. Blockchain technology can improve trust between parties, make information exchange easier throughout the supply chain, and lower agricultural transaction costs dramatically. Blockchain appears poised to be the disruptive force that propels the agricultural industry into the twenty-first century as the public and commercial sectors struggle to address the technology’s practical and legal difficulties.


This article is written by Faria Choudhry, a student of Architecture and Political Science, who strives to uncover hidden dynamics through her writing.

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Climate Crisis; Cries Asia



By 2050, regions of Asia may see rising average temperatures, deadly heatwaves, extreme precipitation events, catastrophic hurricanes, drought, and water supply problems (see figure below). The GDP of Asia is threatened by global warming, accounting for more than two-thirds of the total yearly global GDP at danger. According to McKinsey & Company’s Climate Risk and Response in Asia report, countries in Frontier Asia (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) and Emerging Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) are the most vulnerable to climate change consequences.


Climate change consequences are predicted to be less severe in advanced Asia (Australia, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea) and China, which is a separate category. In fact, increased crop yields are predicted to constitute a net agricultural benefit from climate change in these countries. However, owing to more frequent extreme precipitation events and typhoons in many locations, hazards to infrastructure and supply systems will increase in these countries, which is especially critical given China’s significance in global supply chains.


Warming has a significant impact on what is known as Natural Capital. By 2050, the glacial mass will have decreased by up to 40%, fisheries harvests may have decreased by half, and 90 per cent of coral reefs would have suffered significant degradation. Rising temperatures and deadly heatwaves have an impact on livability and effective working hours in key Asian countries, with up to 10% of daylight work hours likely to be lost by mid-century.


The paper by McKinsey & Company discusses possible solutions to this massive problem. They point out that, thankfully, Asia is ideally positioned to handle these issues and seize the benefits that come with efficiently managing climate risks — if they choose to do so. Many Asian countries are still developing their infrastructure and metropolitan centres. This gives the region an opportunity to make sure that whatever is built is more robust and capable of withstanding the increased hazards of climate change.


The paper by McKinsey & Company discusses possible solutions to this massive problem. They point out that, thankfully, Asia is ideally positioned to handle these issues and seize the benefits that come with efficiently managing climate risks — if they choose to do so. Many Asian countries are still developing their infrastructure and metropolitan centres. This gives the region an opportunity to make sure that whatever is built is more robust and capable of withstanding the increased hazards of climate change.


As the Himalayan glaciers have receded, the annual melting water supply used to feed farmland in India’s Ladakh area has decreased. A system was devised to store meltwater in massive standing structures, allowing for year-round irrigation. However, without major decarbonization, these initiatives are likely to fail. Asia is responsible for about half of all greenhouse gas emissions. The research examines the transition from coal to renewables, which includes a combination of solar and wind power with battery storage, as well as rewards to coal asset owners for retiring assets before they reach the end of their useful lives.

These tactics have not proven to be very effective in the real world, and they consume a lot of energy. For everything, the amount of renewables required to reach these goals would require more steel than China now produces, and that doesn’t include renewables to make green hydrogen to decarbonize steel manufacturing. Leading Asia through the challenges of a warming planet is a huge task, but one that is just as important as leading the rest of the globe to the same objective.

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Digital Yuan: The Breakthrough Digital Currency of Winter Olympics 2022



Shen Xue, a retired Chinese pair skater and 2010 Olympic champion, appeared on Chinese media in December 2020 as the first person to purchase a Beijing Subway pass using the country’s official digital money. Shen celebrated the start of China’s campaign to market its central bank digital currencies overseas during the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics by swiping the turnstile with ski gloves equipped with the latest digital yuan wallet. The Winter Olympics were supposed to be a big premiere for the e-CNY, a digital version of China’s sovereign currency that would be seen by millions of people across the world. Without a local bank account, foreign visitors will be able to use e-CNY to purchase things at the games, which begin on Friday.

With the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic, which locked the Chinese capital to the rest of the world, those plans went awry. Beijing has adopted a “closed-loop system” for the games, which isolates the 11,000 participants from the general public as part of a “zero COVID” policy aimed at preventing any virus transmission.

The People’s Bank of China, a forerunner in the development of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs), first proposed a digital yuan in 2014, while its colleagues were still assessing the benefits of virtual currencies. CBDCs are issued and managed by a central government, unlike cryptocurrencies, which China banned last year because of worries about financial stability and crime. The central bank announced in January that more than 261 million individual users have enrolled for a digital yuan wallet, an app that allows users to utilise e-CNY. Since October, the number of users has roughly doubled.

According to the Beijing Financial Supervision Authority, Beijing has been pilot-testing its digital currency for usage at the games for more than a year, with 9.6 billion CNY ($1.5 billion) in transactions by the end of 2021.

Before the Olympics, the city tested the digital yuan in over 400,000 “scenes” involving real transactions of products and services, according to the regulator, with over 12 million individual users and 1.3 million business users in the capital registering on the app. Mobile payments handled a record 432 trillion yuan ($67.9 trillion) in transactions in 2020, largely on Alibaba’s Alipay and Tencent’s WeChat Pay. Last year, Bloomberg Intelligence predicted that by 2025, the digital yuan would have a 9% domestic market share. Alipay and WePay are thought to have a combined market share of over 90% at the moment.

According to Suji Yan, founder of Mask Network, a Singapore-based cryptographic and encryption start-up, transitioning from tech giants’ digital payments to a CBDC is a simple transition for Chinese citizens. They are already paying with internet giants such as WeChat and Alipay, and the shift [of payment applications] makes no difference to the majority of Chinese customers.

Distrust overseas

Beijing’s Olympic showcase for the digital yuan may be met with scepticism abroad, owing to a rising mistrust of Chinese technology, particularly in terms of data protection and regulatory monitoring. For overseas users, anonymity and privacy are the most pressing concerns when it comes to using the digital yuan. According to official media Xinhua, four levels of user categorization are currently accessible, allowing users to choose how much information to submit with the digital wallet app in order to meet different usage restrictions. Even in the most basic model, with simply a cell phone number, no one believes their transactions will be completely anonymous and private.

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Information Warfare: The Lethal Weapon of the New Ages



Great Generals and Strategists have long believed the information to be the key to victory in any operation or conflict. Many empires have fallen or risen as a result of information. It is clear from General Sun Tzu’s book, The Art of War, that critical information about the enemy will allow us to analyse his strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, and will ultimately provide us with a strategic advantage and triumphs in the wars that are being waged. It also emphasises the importance of information security in winning a battle.

The Internet’s arrival ushered in a fundamental shift in information warfare (IW). It has ushered in a new era in which cyberspace is being used to conduct virtual information operations in order to obtain sensitive data. Information Warfare is a concept in which information is the target and information is the tool used to carry out the information operation. Information operations can be divided into two categories: defensive and offensive.

In every element of society and human connections, information has played a critical role. As a result, it is utilised as a type of warfare in which information gathered through intelligence and cyber espionage is reviewed and manipulated through misinformation campaigns, propaganda, and fake news in order to affect targeted opponents to the state’s advantage or will. In today’s world, contentious geostrategic concerns and power conflicts between states require rivalling states to engage in information warfare, using the essential information of the rival nation. The Three Warfare Strategy and the Assassin Mace Strategy both include information warfare.

China’s Information Warfare Strategy

Information Dominance is the ultimate goal of the Chinese Information Warfare Strategy. The Chinese IW strategy is based on deterring and disrupting the adversary’s ability to use data by focusing on its important information system and decision-making process, which would eventually influence the adversary’s willingness or ability to fight. Conducting cyber espionage and psychological operations to collect sensitive information from the adversary.

Information Operations (IO) are used to strategically implement China’s IW policy across global cyberspace. Information operations are divided into two types: offensive information operations (OIO) and defensive information operations (DIO).

Methods and strategies for disrupting an adversary’s information structure, as well as cyber espionage, are included in offensive information operations. Defensive information operations, on the other hand, were focused on assuring information security, that is, shielding vital information systems from incoming enemy disruption attempts.

Implications for India

According to Cert-In assessments, there has been a slew of serious cyber-attacks linked to Chinese Information Operations against India, targeting both the government and the general population. Since June 1998, when the first known cyber-attack on India was on the computers of BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre), the country has been subjected to Chinese cyber-attacks.


Furthermore, after any major events in India, the number of cyberattacks tends to rise. For example, 80,000 cyber-attacks were recorded following the demonetisation of banknotes, and more than 40,300 attacks were reported in the aftermath of the Galwan fight on the Indian internet. In the month following the Galwan Clash, there was a 200 per cent increase in Chinese cyberattacks, most of which were aimed at stealing critical information.


The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitYCert-In)’s (Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) has played a critical role by developing proactive measures. India responded positively by banning over 150 apps, including Tik Tok, PUBG, and other utility apps.

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Dating Apps: Latest Instruments of Espionage



Espionage is not some new-age practice.

Diplomatic workers, military attachés, and trade delegations are all routinely acquiring publically available information. They obtain information through open sources such as the media, conferences, diplomatic events, and trade shows, as well as direct contact with representatives from the host government. This allows them to keep tabs on political, economic, and military developments in their host country while also providing information to their own governments. As a result, foreign officials assist their governments in shaping international, commercial, and military policy. This type of effort does not jeopardise our national security. In fact, it frequently assists us in forming positive relationships with other countries.

The goal of espionage is to get non-public information using covert techniques. First and foremost, classified material is kept secret because its exposure could jeopardise national security, jeopardise the country’s economic well-being, or hurt international relations. Its sensitivity necessitates our protection, but it also makes it appealing to spies.

Serious harm can be done if this information is obtained by individuals who have no permission to access it. Other countries, for example, are looking for technical knowledge about weapons systems in order to identify strategies to counteract our military advantages. Furthermore, the theft of sensitive technologies could allow foreign corporations to imitate them, posing a threat to national security as well as job security.

Dangerous Liaisons- Honey Trapping

A wide-ranging Chinese operation to blackmail Western businesses over sexual ties was described by the renowned British security service. The document report expressly states that Chinese intelligence agencies are attempting to build “long-term connections” and have been known to “exploit vulnerabilities such as sexual relationships… to pressurise individuals to cooperate with them,” as the London Times reported in 2009.

Spymasters of all kinds have been training their spies to utilise the amorous arts to gather hidden information for millennia. The “honey trap” is the trade name for this sort of surveillance. And it turns out that both men and women are equally capable of creating one — and equally prone to falling into it. As bait, spies utilise sex, intelligence, and the thrill of living a double life. Against a well-set honey trap, cunning, training, character, and patriotism are frequently ineffective.

Spymasters, Romeo Spies and Elaborate Honey Traps

Markus Wolf, the legendary East German spymaster, perhaps devised the biggest honey trap in intelligence history. Wolf realised in the early 1950s that, as a result of the large number of marriageable German men killed in World War II and the increasing number of German women pursuing careers, the higher echelons of the German government, commerce, and industry were now stocked with lonely single women, ripe — in his opinion — for the temptations of a honey trap.

Wolf established a special division of the Stasi, East Germany’s security organisation, and filled it with his most attractive and intelligent officers. They were dubbed “Romeo spies” by him. Their mission was to infiltrate West Germany, find influential, unmarried women, woo them, and get all of their secrets from them. The Stasi infiltrated most levels of West German government and industry thanks to the Romeo spies and their honey traps. At one point, the East Germans even had a spy inside NATO who could provide information on the West’s nuclear weapons deployment. Another utilised her contacts to work as a secretary in the office of Helmut Schmidt, the West German chancellor.

Honey Trap Spies lurking on Dating Apps Today

In 2019, India discovered 150 Pakistani social media personas that were meant to dupe Indian army officers into divulging state secrets. India instructed soldiers to deactivate Facebook, Instagram, Tinder, and hundreds of other apps from phones because the problem was so serious. A woman would normally begin the seduction by ‘liking’ a soldier’s social media post and asking for more photographs of firearms and aircraft. The conversation would then shift to direct texting, with Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence enticingly requesting defence secrets.

Foreign Interference Plot on an unspecified Australian Election Revealed

Tinder and other dating apps are being used by foreign spies to recruit Australians with access to key government information currently. While delivering his yearly threat assessment, ASIO commander Mike Burgess revealed the alarming disclosure, warning that identifying anti-vaccine campaigners who could turn violent was proving tough.

Mr Burgess confirmed espionage and foreign interference has now “supplanted” terrorism as the “principal security concern” in a wide-ranging address to an audience of military chiefs, security bosses, and politicians inside ASIO’s Canberra headquarters, declaring the recent AUKUS nuclear partnership an obvious target for international agents.

Thousands of Australians with access to confidential material are thought to have been targeted by foreign intelligence services through social media profiles over the last two years. These assassins know how to use the internet to find new recruits. On messaging systems like WhatsApp, there has been an increase in dubious approaches. As part of its attempt to entice Australians with access to state secrets, overseas intelligence operatives are being tracked by ASIO on popular dating apps. Foreign intelligence services can easily target personnel of interest by going online, according to the Director-General of Security.

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Oil of the 21st Century- How China has been using Big Data to further its global surveillance



Data is the oil of the twenty-first century, an inexhaustible resource that will power AI algorithms, economic strength, and national might. All of us are the source of this data: our medical records and genetic sequences, our internet behaviours, our companies’ supply chain movements, and the terabytes of pictures consumed by smartphones, drones, and self-driving cars. To obtain financial, technological, and military advantages in the twenty-first century, it will be necessary to safeguard and harness this data. China is currently winning, while the West is barely involved.

Mr Xi has been hard at work building the Chinese Communist Party the world’s most powerful data broker through a latticework of new laws and regulations. How does Beijing accomplish this? By isolating Chinese data from the rest of the world, gaining additional extraterritorial control over global data flows, and putting foreign companies doing business in China in legal limbo — all while consuming data from other nations through legal and illegal means. Mr Xi understands that securing solely Chinese data, which represents the patterns and behaviour of 1.4 billion people, would stymie Beijing’s competitors in the race for global economic supremacy.

“The huge ocean of data, like oil resources during industrialization, contains immense productive potential and opportunities,” Mr Xi remarked in 2013, shortly after assuming the presidency in Beijing. Whoever controls big data technology will have the upper hand in terms of development resources.” Since then, Beijing has been putting in place the infrastructure to ensure that massive data collections suit the strategic goals of the Chinese Communist Party. In 2017, the party asserted its capacity to obtain access to private data on Chinese networks, whether in China or affiliated with Chinese corporations such as Huawei overseas, through a series of laws.

Now, Beijing has discreetly passed a new set of rules — the Data Security Law in September, followed by the Personal Information Protection Law in November — that go even farther, requiring not only access to private data but also effective control over it. This has a significant influence on international companies doing business in China. Beijing now seeks control over whether they can send Chinese data to their own headquarters, a company facility in, say, California, or a foreign government that has made a law enforcement or regulatory request.

Beijing’s new moves are in addition to its long-running efforts to buy, steal, and otherwise obtain data from foreign sources around the world. Beijing has hacked into the databases of global corporations. It organises “talent recruitment” programmes at universities and businesses throughout the world. It acquires overseas firms, such as an Italian drone manufacturer. It invests in open overseas marketplaces like Silicon Valley to fund its own data-driven start-ups. The strategy is blatantly nonreciprocal. It relies on international data while denying foreigners access to Chinese data – and appears to presume that foreign governments would remain unresponsive. 

The good news is that if democratic countries get their act together, they may be in a better position than Beijing, which is obstructing its own advancement due to a paranoid attitude. Mr Xi has been cracking down on private Chinese digital titans like Alibaba and Tencent in recent months, requiring them to hand up their data troves to state-controlled third parties. This crackdown, which resulted in the loss of over $1 trillion in market value, would make these companies less inventive because they no longer have control over their data. Democratic allies must work together to increase data sharing while limiting data flows to China. Former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe presented a blueprint. This concept, dubbed Data Free Flow With Trust, should be adopted as a policy.

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