Kargil War Period: May 3 to July 26, 1999 (Kargil Vijay Diwas)
The Kargil war of 1999 is said to be laced with Pakistani deceit and treachery. It is one of the key points in history that have evoked the anti-Pak sentiment across India. Siachen is the world’s highest battlefield at a height of more than 17000 feet. India claimed its territorial integrity on the Siachen glacier in 1984. The Kargil Vijay Diwas war is one of the most magnificent and remarkable tales of mountain warfare and hostility by a neighboring country.
It is extremely important to applaud and celebrate the efforts of the tri-service defense establishment comprising of the Indian Air Force, Indian Navy, and the Indian Army. Collective and coordinated sacrifices by all three earned India the Kargil Victory (Kargil Vijay Diwas).
The official casualty figures for the Kargil war in India were more than 500 whereas those in Pakistan were between 400 to 4000. Before the Kargil war erupted, there was reportedly just one brigade of the Indian Army, which comprised of three units with about 2,500 soldiers, who guarded 300 km of Indian territory, along the Line of Control (LoC) between Zojila and Leh. Seemingly impossible, this meant that one single unit was responsible for protecting about 100 km of territory. These sectors are the crucial backbone for the logistics requirements of the army from Zojila to the world’s highest army deployment, Siachen. There was a deficit in terms of deployment on the Indian side.
An unspoken understanding between the two nuclear powers back then was to withdraw posts from the Siachen region during the winter snowfalls, as the conditions became inhospitable for survival. India had an inadequate amount of heavy artillery guns back in 1999.
Stomping Feet On The Ground: The Indian Army
In violation of humanitarian and unspoken understanding, Pakistan took undue advantage of the shortcomings. Pakistan encroached on the Indian territories of Mushkoh, Dras, Kargil, Batalik, and Turtuk sub-sectors, between Zojila and Leh. Numerous paramilitary Northern Light Infantry were drawn exclusively from Pakistan’s Gilgit-Baltistan and skilled in high-altitude warfare, were sent in over the winter to occupy military posts. They crossed the LoC and intruded about 4-10 km into Indian territory, occupying 130 winter-vacated Indian posts. The Pakistanis strategically positioned themselves in a way that made it easy for them to target the advancing Indian troops from the southern part of the hill.
Their main aim was to cut off the Srinagar- Leh highway, in a bid to restrict India’s access to Siachen and Ladakh.
Many locals in the region are given credit for being aware and reporting on the unusual military movement. The Indian defense establishment was caught unaware of the staunch infidelity by Pakistan, our neighbor. Locals reported the presence of cigarette packets and magazines, and they claim that the magazines were read by officers and not militants. According to various media reports, Mohammed Yusuf, an ex-serviceman who retired in 1991 after having served with the 9 Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry, said that in early May, his children spotted the Pak troops climbing up to Tololing while they were out grazing their cattle.
Yusuf recalls: “My children came across 10 Pakistani soldiers. These soldiers ordered them to leave their cattle and go away. But they ran down to our village. They told me about what happened. I told them that Indian soldiers don’t patrol that particular area,” he said. Yusuf went to the spot and saw a few Pakistani soldiers going to Bhimbat. He reported this to an army officer.
These reports and other activities led the Indian army to gear up against the enemy and recapture the lost territory. The Economic Times reported that Brigadier Kushal Thakur, who was commanding 18 Grenadiers as a colonel during the war, said his unit was tasked to move to Dras as part of ‘Operation Vijay’ which began in May 1999 to evict the intruders. The unit reached Dras on May 17. I, as the commanding officer of 18 Grenadiers, had the opportunity to lead the battalion through the two important battles of Tololing and Tiger Hill in the Dras sector and both are considered as the turning points during the Kargil war. 18 Grenadiers successfully carried out a reconnaissance of Tololing. The recapture by the Indian armed forces suggested that the Pakistan establishment had sent trained military officers and not mere militants.
According to the Economic Times, 18 Grenadiers were later instructed to capture Tiger Hill. “This time we were better prepared. About 120 artillery guns were lined up, facing the feature. We had more than adequate high-altitude clothing and shoes,” said Thakur. Bofors guns had also arrived.
18 Grenadiers, with 8 Sikhs providing support, launched the operation to capture Tiger Hill on July 3, 1999. The unit reached the top of Tiger Hill the next day.
Roaring In The Sky – The Indian Air Force
India’s air power was successful in swatting away Pakistan. The Indian Air Force’s MiG-29s combated the Pakistani F-16s, while MiG-21, MiG-27 and Mirage-2000 jets were also able to devastate Pakistani military positions with impunity.
The IAF’s employment of airpower against Pakistan Army positions at Himalayan heights of 18,000 ft – unprecedented in the history of aerial warfare – achieved three key objectives: it ensured an early Indian victory, demoralised the Pakistani military and showed the limitations of nuclear deterrence.
Because of the aerial superiority achieved by the IAF in the war – and later during the 2002 border standoff – the Pakistan Air Force’s “psyche took a big beating”, says a Strategy Page report.
While a number of IAF aircraft took part in the Kargil Vijay Diwas campaign, it was the cover provided by the MiG-29 Fulcrum armed with beyond-visual-range (BVR) missiles that exposed the PAF’s plight. “Analyses by Pakistani experts revealed that when the rubber met the road, PAF simply refused to play any part in supporting the Pakistan Army, angering the latter,” says the report.
“While PAF fighters did fly Combat Air Patrols (CAP) during the conflict, they stayed well within Pakistani airspace. On occasions, IAF MiG-29s armed with the deadly R-77 BVR air-to-air missiles were able to lock on to PAF F-16s, forcing the latter to disengage. In the absence of a PAF threat, the IAF was able to deliver numerous devastating strikes on intruder positions and supply dumps.”
Sailing Through The Rough Sea- The Indian Navy
According to a tribute by the Asian Age, Admiral Sushil Kumar, the Navy chief at that time, recollects that “by early June 1999 the task forces of the Indian Navy’s Western fleet had swiftly deployed and seized the initiative in the North Arabian Sea”.
Writing for the Asian Age, CMDE SRIKANT KESNUR and CDR DIGVIJAYSINH SODHA narrate: “Operation Talwar, was a demonstration of intent and capability. All elements of the naval force were pressed into action to, first, ascertain the positions of the Pakistan Navy assets and, second, to ensure that their own high-value assets in the sea, Bombay High, as well as in the coastal areas, especially in Gujarat, were well protected. The idea was to provide no opportunity for Pakistan to claim success and to ensure that if Pakistan dared to consider expanding the battle from the limited Kargil sector, the Navy would open another front in the South. The operation involved the largest-ever deployment of combatant ships in the Arabian Sea. The Western Fleet, which by itself was large enough to tackle the Pakistani Navy, was additionally augmented by assets from the Eastern Fleet. As India progressively involved its naval aviation, submarine, amphibious and Coast Guard assets and conducted high tempo operations including Electronic Warfare exercises, the signal was clear. Further, when the Pakistani authorities started bandying about the ‘N word’, India responded by moving ships closer to Pakistan coast, a clear indication that we would not yield to the nuclear blackmail.”
On July 26, 1999, India declared success and accomplishment of Operation Vijay, thereby recapturing its loss of control of the Indian territory.
Pakistan denied its military involvement and shifted the blame towards Kashmiri militants seeking ‘Azaadi’ or freedom from the Indian subcontinent. It is a well-known fact that Pakistan wanted India to be on its knees and give up the Kashmir valley.
By Kunjan Ahluwalia
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G20 Summit & All That You Need To Know
The G20 summit represents a significant portion of the global economy, accounting for around 85% of global gross domestic product (GDP), 80% of global trade, and two-thirds of the world’s population. As a result, decisions made within the G20 can have far-reaching impacts on global economic policies and international relations.
What is the G-20?
Found in 1999, the Group of Twenty, or G20, is a global organization with 20 member nations. It was established in response to the financial crisis of the late 1990s and to bring together significant economies to discuss policy coordination and collaboration. It offers a stage for talks on problems related to the financial system’s stability, sustainable development, and global economic issues. But over the years it has become a significant platform for leaders to discuss and act on critical global issues like poverty, inequality and climate change.
Which countries form the G-20?
Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States comprise the G20. The European Union is also a member and is represented by the European Commission and the European Central Bank.
Heads of state or government, finance ministers, and central bank governors gather at the G20’s yearly meetings to conduct business. Discussions and negotiations aimed at promoting investment, international trade, financial regulation, and economic growth are the main topics of the sessions. Meetings of the finance ministers and central bank governors are held throughout the year in addition to the official summits to discuss ongoing economic challenges.
What is the Significance of G20 organisation and the G20 Summit?
Globally speaking, the G20 is essential in promoting cooperation among its members and tackling global economic and financial issues. It acts as a forum for discussion, collaboration, and coordination to support global economic stability and sustainable development. The G20 represents a significant portion of the global economy, accounting for around 85% of global gross domestic product (GDP), 80% of global trade, and two-thirds of the world’s population. As a result, decisions made within the G20 can have far-reaching impacts on global economic policies and international relations.
The G20 summit brings together leaders from the G20 member countries to discuss and decide on various global economic concerns. However, it is the meaningful conversations between the sherpas of these nations that is vital for policy and decision making.
Who are the G20 Sherpas?
During the G20 process, the senior officials and diplomats who attend/represent the G20 meetings on behalf of their nation’s head of state or government are called as Sherpas. G20 Sherpas set the agenda, negotiate positions, and promote dialogue among the members.
Before the summit, sherpas frequently hold many rounds of discussions. These conversations touch on various issues, including financial stability, trade, investment, development, climate change, and other urgent global issues. The primary goal of these meetings is to identify areas of agreement, create consensus, and create cooperative strategies to deal with global economic difficulties. Sherpas hold in-depth discussions with their counterparts, examining various policy choices, sharing information, and attempting to reach a consensus on important topics.
Since each nation brings unique interests, priorities, and views, the conversations between the sherpas are intricate. To make sure that the outcomes of the G20 summit represent a broad consensus among the member countries, these discussions may require reaching concessions, settling disputes, and negotiating delicate problems. Sherpas bring together the priorities and viewpoints of the participating nations through these meetings, identify areas requiring group effort, and lay out potential solutions or policy suggestions for the summit’s leaders to consider.
Sherpas are crucial in determining the G20 summit’s agenda and results. As a result of their work, joint declarations, action plans, and pledges are created and approved by the leaders at the summit.
The conversations between the sherpas are a vital forum for communication, collaboration, and consensus-building among the G20 member nations. They are crucial in determining the summit’s course and results, helping to make sure that the G20 addresses the world’s economic concerns and promotes equitable and sustainable growth on a global scale.
India’s G-20 Presidency
From December 1, 2022, through November 30, 2023, India will be the G20’s president. In September of this year, the final New Delhi Summit will have 43 heads of delegation, the most ever to attend a G20 summit.
The slogan of this year’s G20 Summit under the Indian Presidency is “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam,” which translates to “One Earth, One Family.”
What is on agenda in the 2023 G-20 Summit?
- Climate Finance, Life, and Green Development
- Fast, Inclusive, and Resilient Growth
- Increasing SDGs progress
- Digital Public Infrastructure and Technological Change
- 21st century’s multilateral institutions
- Women driving development
Behind the Scenes at G20
Before the summit in Kashmir (from 22 – 24 May), China raised a protest against the conduct of the G20 tourism working group conference being conducted in the Indian State.
China’s decision is most likely the result of Pakistan’s concerns, a close ally who stated that the G20 summits were intended to support India’s “illegal occupation” of Jammu and Kashmir. Meanwhile dismissing such ill-founded concerns of the Chinese side, India reiterated that all her states and union territories were hosting the G20 Summit 2023 in India.
However, as India continues to garner more goodwill and support from the G20 leaders, and China continues to lose standing in international global forums, it become a permanent absentee from such global summits soon.
May Fourth Movement at Tiananmen Square- China’s Awakening
Early in the 20th century, China had a significant socio-political and intellectual movement known as the May 4th Movement, often called the New Culture Movement. It gained support from a wide range of intellectuals, laborers, and business people as it migrated from Beijing to other significant Chinese cities with demands to abandon ancient Confucian principles and to adopt the Western ideals of democracy, freedom, and equality instead.
While aiming to imbibe the modern thought, these protesters demanded that foreign imperialism be ceased and control be given back to the Chinese. By challenging long-standing conventions and paving the way for a more progressive and open society, this Movement had a significant impact on Chinese intellectual and cultural history.
What Happened on May 4th 1919?
On May 4, 1919 Chinese students started a series of demonstrations in Beijing, notably in Tiananmen Square. They took to the streets to protest and express their dissatisfaction with the government. Gradually this movement spread to parts of Shanghai and Guangzhou, making it a large-scale student protest.
What was the Reason of the Student Protest on May 4, 1919?
First, The Treaty of Versailles & Shandong Problem – The discussion of the Treaty caused much resentment over how China was being treated during the post-World War I by Western powers, especially with regards to Shandong. The German concessions in Shandong were not returned to China but instead were given to Japan. Intellectuals and students in China therefore could not help but be patriotic and anti-imperialist.
Second, existing sociocultural problems in the Chinese society – Disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture and values were growing among Chinese intellectuals and students. Discontentment with existing and belief on the new concepts and philosophies, especially those acquired from the West, were sought to replace these established principles. Thus, fostering science, democracy, and individuality became very important.
What Made May Fourth Movement so Successful?
- The Movement’s ability to win widespread support from various facets of society was one of the main factors in its success. Unlike any previous protests in China, the May 4 Movement was organised and led by students and intellectuals. They planned gatherings, marches, demonstrations, printed newspapers, and pamphlets to disseminate their views and unite participants. It was this initiative that attracted more people to join, including workers, business people and warlords. This increased the movement’s power, and the government was pressured to respond to its demands thanks to this wide-ranging support.
- Utilizing new media and communication channels effectively was another key. Students published their ideas through newspapers, journals, and speeches to get support from the public. They also built relationships with activists and intellectuals who shared their views in other places, which helped the cause extend outside of Beijing. The Movement was able to unite thanks to these communication tactics and develop a sense of a common goal.
- The next reason of the movement’s success can be traced to its appealing and distinct goals. The Movement had a clearly stated mission, which included calls for democracy, the democratization of China, and the nation’s revitalization. A sizeable segment of the populace, demanding modernization and reform in the face of foreign dominance, identified with these goals.
- The Movement also capitalized on a potent anti-imperialist and sense of national pride. The ‘Shandong Problem’ that was viewed as a violation of Chinese interests in the Treaty of Versailles sparked a strong sense of fury and served as the Movement’s unifying cause. The participants shared rage against foreign imperialism, and the need for national self-determination was a potent unifying force.
What was the May Fourth Movement Significance & Impact on Post World War 1 China?
The success of the May 4th Movement left a long-lasting influence on Chinese politics and society. The movement produced an intellectual and cultural awakening that significantly changed Chinese values and thought. Some major political and social reforms in China that are still cherished and recognised as attributes to the May 4 movement are-
Anti-Imperialist and anti-Warlord Feelings: The Movement stoked a genuine anti-imperialist feeling among the Chinese. It stepped up the fight against foreign meddling and prepared the way for the eventual downfall of imperial control. The Movement also helped reduce the influence of warlords by exposing their corruption and incompetence, further damaging their reputation among the populace.
Founding of Communist Party in 1921: The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was established mainly due to the May 4th Movement. Many academics and students identified with the Movement’s emphasis on social justice, anti-imperialism, and the empowerment of the working class. Therefore, this Movement offered a favourable environment for the propagation of communist doctrine, resulting in the CCP’s founding in 1921. The party would later be crucial in determining the course of China’s development.
Anti-Japanese Sentiments: The Movement also stoked prejudice towards the Japanese, which is still present today. The Movement’s hostility to the Treaty of Versailles’s unfair treatment of China, particularly the transfer of German concessions in Shandong to Japan, strengthened a sense of national outrage towards that country. This attitude was the impetus for later resistance to Japanese aggression, culminating in the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the present that hate that since liberation was kept alive by CCP leaders especially Mao Zedong and Xi Jinping.
Large-scale but not widely supported – Controversies & Criticisms of May 4th Movement
Despite its enormous support and influence, the May 4th Movement came under fire from
several groups, notably Chinese Muslim Community and Kuomintang (KMT) – affiliated nationalists.
The Chinese Muslims & ethnic groups were concerned about the Movement’s emphasis on Westernisation and rejection of traditional values, most notably by people in Northwest China. They felt that the calls for a secular society and the adoption of modern ideas were in opposition to Islamic doctrine and cultural norms. Chinese Muslims saw the Movement as a potential danger to their identity and way of life since they connected so closely with their religious and cultural history. They were concerned that the emphasis on Westernisation might undermine their Islamic principles and push their communities to the margins.
The KMT Nationalists under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek criticized the Movement’s extremism and connection to communist philosophy. Chiang and other KMT members thought the Movement’s focus on the class struggle and worker emancipation would erode social stability and impede national unity. They said that the Movement’s emphasis on urban intellectuals ignored the requirements and ambitions of the rural masses, who comprised most Chinese citizens. As a danger to Chinese culture and social order, the KMT also criticized the Movement’s rejection of traditional Confucian principles.
A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another.
– Mao Zedong
Despite the criticism, it is essential to note that the May 4th Movement it must be accepted that the Chinese history underwent significant change during this Movement. It brought about substantial political, social, and cultural transformations that influenced the development of contemporary China. The Movement’s legacy still impacts Chinese society today and represents youth activism, pride in one’s country, and the desire for social change.
Sudan Crisis: What Sparked Ongoing Violent Clashes?
The Sudanese army and its paramilitary organization called Rapid Support Forces (RSF) are at war with one another that if unchecked may soon lead to collapse of the African nation. Read everything about Sudan Crisis.
What Led to Sudan Crisis?
A coup in 2021 overthrew the transitional government that was established after the tyrannical reign of Omar al-Bashir. Since then Sudan has been governed by the army under the leadership of General Abdel-Fattah Burhan as the de facto president. And they were supported by the RAF…until now.
The RSF under the command of General Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti, had cooperated with the Sudanese army to maintain military rule. After Bashir was overthrown elections were expected to be held by the end of 2023 with Burhan vowing a switch to a civilian administration.
However now neither Burhan nor Dagalo is willing to cede their positions of authority. The situation has now developed into a violent power battle since April 15, 2023.
What is Happening in Sudan?
Clashes between the RSF and the Sudanese army have occurred throughout the nation, including in Khartoum, the nation’s capital. The violence has increased dramatically over the past three days. Conflict about integrating RSF paramilitaries into the Sudanese army was the recent background of the violence. After the RSF began sending personnel nationwide and into Khartoum without the army’s formal consent, tensions reached a breaking point.
But in actuality, tensions in Sudan have been building for some time due to worries that the RSF may be attempting to gain more control over its economic resources, particularly its gold mines. The recent changes in Sudan are unfavourable for the country’s stability or chances of making a democratic transition.
Where does the power equation stand?
Since Sudan’s independence in 1956, the military has dominated the country, carrying out coups, waging internal conflicts, and acquiring economic interests. Distrust between the military and civilian parties persisted throughout the 2019–21 power-sharing arrangement. A tenacious protest movement and backing from some members of the international community provided legitimacy to the civilian side. Additionally, Bashir’s government veterans who joined the civil service after the coup and rebel factions profiting from a 2020 peace agreement supported the military.
The army was restored to power following the coup, but it was met by weekly protests, a rekindled sense of isolation, and worsening economic conditions. General Mohamed HamdanDagalo, the head of the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces and the deputy chairman of Sudan’s ruling council since 2019, backed the proposal for a fresh transition, which stoked tensions with Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, the president of the ruling council and the army. Hemedti is the alternate name for Dagalo.
Major Faultlines in Sudan Crisis
- Army’s unconditional support to local militias groups
- Monopoly of the military over major industries – civilians have demanded transfer of lucrative military holdings in trade, agriculture, and other businesses.
- Lack of investigation into military’s war crimes during Darfur War (2003) – The people of Sudan had expected that Bashir and other accused would be punished for the wae crimes committed by them at the International Criminal Court (ICC). However the present government’s has shown no intention towards fulfilling this.
- 2019 murder of pro-democracy protestors – On 3rd June 2019 a military personnel was accused of committing the murder of pro-democracy protesters. However repeated delays in the investigation have infuriated family members, activists and civic organizations.
- Widespread demand of justice for the protesters slain by security personnel since the coup in 2021.
How is Sudan Economy Doing?
A significant factor in Bashir’s fall was the deteriorating economic crisis that drove the currency to tumble and caused severe shortages of food and oil. The 2019 – 2021 Transitional Government successfully sought debt relief and attracted international funding by implementing severe, quick changes under the IMF’s supervision. However, after the coup in 2021, billions of dollars in foreign aid and debt relief were suspended, slowing development efforts, taxing the national budget, and escalating the already grave humanitarian situation.
Situation in the Neighborhood
The Red Sea, the Sahel, and the Horn of Africa border Sudan, which is located in a volatile area. The nation’s strategic importance and wealth in agriculture have drawn regional power struggles, making the odds of a smooth transition more difficult. Several of Sudan’s neighbours have experienced political unrest and conflict, notably Ethiopia, Chad, and South Sudan.
Several issues have soured Sudan’s relations with Ethiopia, including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, contested farmland along their shared border, and unrest in the Tigray region, resulting in thousands of refugees entering Sudan.
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, two powerful nations in the region, have viewed Sudan’s transformation as a means of fending against Islamist influence.
Meanwhile, the Western nations are concerned about the possibility of a Russian facility on the Red Sea, which Sudanese military officials have said they are open to.
Why Sudan Crisis is Important to the Rest of the World?
Fighting in Sudan between groups loyal to two prominent generals has raised the possibility of its collapse and may have repercussions well beyond its borders. Both sides possess tens of thousands of fighters, outside financial support, mineral wealth, and other assets that may protect them from sanctions. It is a recipe for the protracted strife that has wreaked havoc on other nations in the Middle East and Africa, including Libya, Ethiopia, Lebanon, and Syria. Millions of people are stranded in cities, seeking safety from gunfire, explosives, and looters. And so many more have sacrificed themselves for a better life with democracy.
The Nile River is shared by Sudan, the third-largest country in Africa by area. With regional powerhouses Ethiopia and Egypt, it uncomfortably shares its waters. Ethiopia is building a sizable upstream dam, frightening both Cairo and Khartoum. Egypt depends on the Nile to support its population of nearly 100 million people. Egypt has tight connections with Sudan’s armed forces, which it views as an ally against Ethiopia. Cairo has contacted both sides in Sudan to urge a cease-fire, but it is unlikely to remain silent if the military is defeated.
Libya, Chad, the Central African Republic, Eritrea, and South Sudan are the other five nations that border Sudan. South Sudan broke away in 2011 and seized 75% of Khartoum’s oil reserves. Almost all have ongoing internal battles, and there are several rebel organizations swarming the open borders.
According to International Crisis Group’s Alan Boswell, “What happens in Sudan will not stay in Sudan.” “South Sudan and Chad appear to be the most at risk for immediate spillover. But the longer the Sudan crisis continues, the more probable there will be significant outside intervention.
UNSCR 1325: Advancing Women’s Participation and Protection in Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution
On 31st October 2000, the United Nations Security Council adopted a historical and landmark resolution – Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325). It is considered to be a milestone in several ways owing to its importance in moving towards a gender-just society. The first-ever resolution adopted by the Security Council that recognised the disproportionate impact of armed conflict on women and children. It laid out the important role that women can play in promoting peace and security.
4 Pillars of UNSCR 1325
UNSCR 1325 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325) has four pillars:
- Participation: The resolution emphasizes the importance of women’s participation in all aspects of peacebuilding and conflict resolution, including in decision-making processes and in post-conflict reconstruction.
- Protection: The resolution recognizes the particular impact of armed conflict on women and girls and calls for their protection from all forms of violence, including sexual violence.
- Prevention: The resolution highlights the need to prevent conflict by addressing its root causes, including gender inequality, and by promoting the participation of women in conflict prevention efforts.
- Relief and Recovery: The resolution recognizes the unique needs and contributions of women in relief and recovery efforts, and emphasizes the importance of their full participation in these efforts.
Women’s Participation in Peace Dialogues
Highlighting the significance of women’s full and equal participation in all initiatives, it aims at maintaining and promoting peace and security, as well as at conflict prevention and resolution. The resolution emphasises the need of incorporating women in all stages of the peace process, including talks, conflict resolution, and post-war reconstruction. Additionally, it calls for actions to preserve women’s rights and stop gender-based violence both during and after armed conflict.
The importance of the equal participation and full involvement of women in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security, as well as in the prevention and resolution of conflicts has also been underscored.
Role of Women’s Rights Groups
Resolution 1325 was the result of years of advocacy by women’s groups and civil society organisations, who had been working to raise awareness about the impact of armed conflict on women and the need for their participation in peacebuilding and conflict resolution. The resolution was also influenced by the experiences of women in conflict and post-conflict situations, particularly in the Balkans and in Rwanda.
Since its adoption, UNSCR 1325 has been followed by several subsequent resolutions and has become a cornerstone of the UN’s efforts to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment in conflict prevention and resolution. The resolution has also served as a catalyst for the development of national action plans and other initiatives aimed at implementing its provisions at the national level.
The Women, Peace and Security Agenda
UNSCR 1325 has been followed by 9 subsequent resolutions, a brief description of which is given below:
Resolution 1820 (2008)
This resolution focuses on sexual violence in conflict and calls for measures to prevent and respond to such violence, including through the deployment of specialized personnel and the inclusion of sexual violence in peacekeeping mandates.
Resolution 1888 (2009)
This resolution builds on Resolution 1820 and calls for the establishment of a reporting mechanism on sexual violence in conflict, as well as the appointment of a Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict.
Resolution 1889 (2009)
This resolution emphasises the need to address the specific needs and experiences of women and girls in conflict and post-conflict situations, including through the provision of gender-sensitive services and the promotion of women’s participation in peacebuilding and reconstruction.
Resolution 1960 (2010)
This resolution focuses on the issue of impunity for perpetrators of sexual violence in conflict and calls for measures to strengthen accountability, including through the establishment of special courts or tribunals and the collection of evidence.
Resolution 2106 (2013)
This resolution calls for increased efforts to prevent and respond to sexual violence in conflict, including through the deployment of women protection advisers and the provision of comprehensive services to survivors.
Resolution 2122 (2013)
This resolution emphasises the importance of women’s participation in peacebuilding and conflict prevention efforts, as well as the need to address the root causes of conflict and violence against women.
Resolution 2422 (2018)
This resolution focuses on the role of women in preventing and countering violent extremism, calling for efforts to empower women and promote their participation in prevention and response efforts.
Resolution 2467 (2019)
This resolution calls for increased efforts to prevent and respond to sexual violence in conflict, including through the provision of comprehensive medical and psychosocial services to survivors.
Resolution 2493 (2019)
This resolution emphasises the importance of women’s participation in peace negotiations and peacebuilding efforts, as well as the need to address the gendered impacts of conflict and ensure that the perspectives and experiences of women are integrated into peace and security policies and programs.
Together these are called the Women, Peace and Security Agenda (WPS). Their aim is to provide a comprehensive approach to promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment, and highlight the importance of recognizing and addressing the specific challenges facing women in conflict and post-conflict situations.
Has India enforced the WPS agenda?
Successive Indian governments have insisted that the WPS Agenda does not apply to internal Indian matters as there are no active conflicts. However, WPS can assist governments & policy makers to enhance women’s rights, reduce the negative effects of internal conflict on women, and raise female representation in political organisations. In this regard, Indian diplomats and political figures have expressed a commitment – India sent an all-female police unit to South Sudan in 2019, in addition to an all-female engagement team to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2019 and an all-female police unit to Liberia in 2007; However much work needs to be done in this regard.
The People vs Donald Trump – Testing American Democracy
During his time as the 45th President of the United States of America, Donald Trump was (in)famous for controversial statements, questionable conduct and far-right ideology..But who would have known 2 years since leaving the office, Donald Trump is still making headlines.
Why Is Donald Trump Trending Again?
On April 4th of this year Trump was indicted on 34 felony charges, all of which are for falsifying business records in several instances under New York state law. If proved, he could potentially serve for 136 years in prison consecutively.
What Is the Former President Charged With?
To answer this, we have to understand a little about the legal proceedings in the USA and some of the more nuanced viewpoints related to this particular case.
In the American legal system, an indictment is not a verdict, but an acknowledgement of a court, that there is enough evidence present to charge a person and proceed towards trial. Being indicted does not mean you are sentenced to prison.
However, this case is a first for the US, where a former president was indicted on criminal charges.
The New York State District Attorney Alvin Bragg presented evidence of falsification of the record of money transferred to an Adult Movie Star Stormy Daniels, to keep quiet about a long-term affair before the Presidential election of 2016.
Though the jury collectively acknowledged the evidence, the former president pleaded not guilty to all 34 charges.
This opens the door to an open public trial in this case.
But First, Let’s Understand the Exact Nature of Trump’s Crime
According to New York State Law, it is a crime to delete, alter or make a false entry in the business records of an Enterprise with the intent to defraud. According to the Manhattan DA’s indictment and the attendance statement of facts, the DA is alleging the following facts; the records show that the former president ran a catch-and-kill scheme with AMI, the parent company of the “National Enquirer”.
The idea was that the National Enquirer would help Trump win the presidential election by finding negative stories about him and then buying the rights to those stories. The plan was for AMI to then conceal those stories rather than publicize them. According to the New York indictment the scheme went from August 2015 to December 2017, suppressing stories with money and falsifying the purpose of those payments. With the help of the National Enquirer, Trump came to know that Stormy Daniels was ready to sell their long-term affair story to Times Magazine for some undisclosed amount of money. Then Trump with the help of his then-attorney Michel Cohen paid 130,000$ to the former porn star through a real estate shell company registered in the name of Michel. After the 2016 Presidential win, Trump paid 420,000$ in legal fees in several instances to Michel Cohen from the account of the Trump Foundation.
The DA provided several pieces of evidence that proved that these legal payments however are the “Hush-Money” that Cohen paid previously in several instances to suppress several scandalous stories.
So, Is Trump Going to Jail?
Falsifying business records in itself is NOT a ground for harsh jail time in NY state law. However, to push the verdict towards guilt, the prosecutor has to prove the intent of influencing the election behind these payments – which IS A felony.
In future trials, DA Alvin Bragg will be responsible for proving that not only has Trump falsified business transactions but also, he did them to cover up other crimes. Trump’s lawyers on the other hand, will have to provide enough defense to support that the payments were not made to influence the election but to preserve his family’s reputation.
Whether or not Trump is going to jail is entirely upon the jury and the court!
Apart from these cases, there are also three other investigations going on in three different states on the former president alleging; instigating Jan 6 riots on the Capitol, mishandling of classified documents and trying to tamper with vote counting in Georgia.
What is the Biden Government’s Attitude Towards the Case?
Suppressing stories through the means of money and an ironclad NDA contract, is not unheard of in American politics. There is also the question of speeding of case proceedings on this case, making it seem like a political hit job. However, at the moment Donald Trump’s credibility is on the rocks.
Zooming in on this case, one can certainly see the patterns of undermining the concerns and voice of opposition. In the recent years, various accusations of misconduct by several government agencies have surfaced – Be it Trump’s story, multiple subsidies to Pfizer or the story of Hunter Biden’s laptop – all such stories have either been covered up, banned or labeled as misinformation.
Lets not forget the January 6th incident – Unethical political practices by some US leaders in recent years, has made people so resentful of the establishment that they tried to overthrow the government by forcefully entering and raiding the nation’s capital building!
According to the 2023 Edelman Trust Barometer, America is the 3rd largest polarized country in the world. It is believed that the county is very divided and doubtful that the differences can be overcome. And the most ironic of all is that every other day a White House representative comments on another country’s internal politics. When a country struggling with racism and gun violence, stuck in gender and identity politics, battered by canceled culture, presses its skewed view upon others, the rest of the world can only advise America to look within and help itself before preaching to others.
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14 August 2020 at 11:52 am
Superb while reading this article i was experiencing as if I am there well written