The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) oversees the Chandrayaan series of lunar exploration missions. In Hindi and Sanskrit, the term Chandrayaan translates to “moon-craft.” Our understanding of the Moon has dramatically benefited from the Chandrayaan missions. They have given us fresh information on the makeup and past of the Moon and helped us map the lunar surface in greater detail. In addition to advancing India’s space program, the Chandrayaan missions also prepared the stage for upcoming lunar exploration missions. The Chandrayaan missions are significant for India and the Indian Space Research Organisation. They have contributed to India’s prominence as a space exploration powerhouse.

What caused the launch of Chandrayaan?

Chandryaan was launched to help India advance its space program and explore the Moon. The mission served as a vehicle for highlighting India’s achievements in science and technology.

Key scientific discoveries made by Chandrayaan:

  • Water traces on the Moon
  • The Moon’s surface contains hydroxyl (OH) molecules.
  • the finding of brand-new craters and mountains on the Moon
  • The magnetic field of the Moon has been mapped.
  • Investigating the atmosphere of the Moon

Key technologies developed by Chandrayaan

  • A new kind of lunar lander
  • A new type of lunar rover
  • Lunar orbiter of a new design
  • Modern tools for moon research


chandrayaan mission 1

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s first moon mission was Chandrayaan-1. It began operations on October 22, 2008, and lasted through August 29, 2009. The mission was a huge success and produced several significant scientific findings.

Key objectives of Chandrayaan-1

  • To map the Moon’s surface
  • To study the Moon’s geology
  • To search for water on the Moon
  • To develop and test new technologies for space exploration

Scientific instruments on Chandrayaan-1

  • The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) was a spectrometer used to study the chemical composition of the Moon’s surface.
  • High-resolution pictures of the Moon’s surface were captured with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC).
  • A collection of mirrors called the Laser Retroreflector Array (LR) was used to calculate the separation between the Moon and Earth.
  • A small Moon Impact Probe (MIP) probe was dropped from Chandrayaan-1 and struck the Moon’s surface. The composition and structure of the Moon’s surface were investigated using the MIP.

Essential findings from Chandrayaan-1:

  • Water traces on the Moon
  • The Moon’s surface contains hydroxyl (OH) molecules.
  • The result of brand-new craters and mountains on the Moon
  • The magnetic field of the Moon has been mapped.
  • Investigating the atmosphere of the Moon

Legacy of Chandrayaan-1:

For ISRO, Chandrayaan-1 was a huge success. It contributed to promoting and internationalizing India’s space program and several significant scientific achievements. Future lunar missions will use new space exploration technologies developed and tested as part of this mission.


chandrayaan 2

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s second moon mission was Chandrayaan-2. On July 22, 2019, its three parts were launched: an orbiter, a lander, and a rover. The lander Vikram was designed to land at the Moon’s south pole but could not do so due to a technical problem. The rover and the orbiter are still operational and continue exploring the Moon.

Key objectives of Chandrayaan-2:

  • Detailed mapping of the Moon’s surface
  • To investigate the geology and makeup of the Moon
  • To look for water on the Moon
  • To create and test new space exploration technologies

Scientific instruments on Chandrayaan-2:

  • The Orbiter Camera (OHRC), a high-resolution camera, captured pictures of the Moon’s surface.
  • The Moon’s surface was meticulously mapped using the Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC), a camera.
  • A Moon Mineralogy Mapper-2 (M3M) spectrometer was employed to investigate the lunar surface’s chemical composition.
  • A mass spectrometer called the Chandrayaan-2 Laser Ion Mass Spectrometer (C2-LIS) was used to analyze the makeup of the Moon’s atmosphere and surface.

Key discoveries of Chandrayaan-2:

  • The identification of a brand-new lunar crater called Rima Pravah is considered to have been formed due to an asteroid or comet impact.
  • Depiction of the area around the Moon’s south pole is considered a water-ice-rich zone.
  • The Pragyan rover’s close-up examination of the lunar surface.

Legacy of Chandrayaan-2:

For ISRO, Chandrayaan-2 was a huge success. It contributed to promoting and internationalizing India’s space program and several significant scientific achievements. Future lunar missions will use new space exploration technologies developed and tested as part of this mission.


chandrayaan 3

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has a third lunar exploration project called Chandrayaan 3. It won’t have an orbiter, but it will have a lander and a rover comparable to Chandrayaan-2. It will act like a satellite relaying communications regarding its propulsion module. The propulsion module will support the lander and rover combination until the spacecraft is in a 100 km lunar orbit.

  • Mission: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is preparing to launch Chandrayaan 3, its third lunar exploration mission.
  • Launch: The launch of Chandrayaan-3 has been scheduled for July 14, 2023, at 2:35 pm IST.
  • Landing: The south polar area of the Moon is where the mission is anticipated to touch down.
  • Budget: The entire ISRO Chandrayaan-3 mission has a Rs. 615 crore budget.

The planned launch time for Chandrayaan-3 is 2:35 IST on July 14, 2023. On the Moon, the mission will land close to the south-polar region.

Chandrayaan-3 will help India advance its capabilities for space exploration, making it essential for the country. The project will acquire more scientific data about the Moon, which could be used to understand our planet’s past and present better. 

Some of the key differences between Chandrayaan-3 and Chandrayaan-2:

  • Chandrayaan-3 would not have an orbiter, in contrast to Chandrayaan-2, which had one that continued orbiting the Moon after the lander and rover had touched down.
  • Compared to Chandrayaan-2, Vikram, the lander of Chandrayaan-3, has been designed to withstand quicker landing velocity.
  • Chandrayaan-3 will use a brand-new rover called Pragyan that is lighter and more portable than the one on Chandrayaan-2.


The Chandrayaan missions have been a significant accomplishment for India’s space exploration program. The tasks have shown India’s capability to land on the Moon gently and have given valuable insights into the Moon. We will continue to learn important information from the Chandrayaan missions that will aid in our understanding of the Moon.

Some of the key achievements of the Chandrayaan missions:

  • Chandrayaan-1 found water on the Moon, an essential resource for upcoming lunar exploration by humans.
  • Chandrayaan-2’s soft landing on the Moon marked a significant turning point in India’s space program.
  • The continuing Chandrayaan-3 mission gives us essential information about the lunar south pole.

For upcoming Indian lunar missions, the Chandrayaan missions have set the path. The Chandrayaan-4, Chandrayaan-5, and Chandrayaan-6 moon missions are among the new ones that the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) intends to launch in the upcoming years. These missions will expand on the achievements of the Chandrayaan 1, 2, and 3 missions and aid India in developing its space exploration capabilities.

The Chandrayaan missions prove how diligently and diligently the ISRO scientists and engineers have worked. A new generation of scientists and engineers in India have been motivated by the missions, which have elevated India to a premier spacefaring country. It will take some time before the Chandrayaan missions are known. However, the tasks have already been a success, and they will undoubtedly offer insightful information and valuable data that will help us comprehend the Moon.

India Is On The Moon ! [UPDATE]

On August 2023 as the entire nation watched wirh excitement, pride and admiration – Chandrayaan 3 successfully arrived on the Moon. 

With the successful Lander Module touchdown of Chandrayaan-3, the third lunar mission launched by ISRO proved to be an immense success. In addition, ISRO and Chandrayaan have made history by being the first nation to set foot close to the Moon’s south pole.

“India’s successful moon mission is not India’s alone….The Moon mission is built on the same human-centric philosophy as ours, which is that there is only one earth and one family with one future. Therefore, humanity as a whole shares in this triumph.”

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi 

What followed the successful landing of the Vikram Lander and Pragyan Rover Module were euphoric celebrations at not just ISRO’s the Mission Operations Complex (MOX) but also in every part of the world where Indians are present. 

Operation of the Pragyan Rover 

Once Vikram Lander landed on the moon then it successfully deployed the Rover. The Pragyan rover, a six-wheeled robotic vehicle named after the Sanskrit word for ‘wisdom’, conducted in-situ chemical analyses of the lunar surface as it is moving. With a mission length of one lunar day (14 days on Earth), the Lander and Rover include scientific payloads to conduct lunar surface investigations.

The Rover has now successfully completed its assignment and has been set to ‘sleep mode’. This was done to protect the Rover and its payload, the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS), from the lunar night. 

What is the Lunar Night?

Lunar night which is equal to 14 Earth days is extreme temperature of about -120 degree Celcius. As the Lander and Rover are not designed to withstand such low temperatures, ISRo has taken the decision to conserve its battery and protect the equipments.

ISRO plans to revive the Lander Rover Module once the Lunar day sets in. 

Another Successful Mission by ISRO – Aditya L1

On 2nd September, ISRO successfully launched India’s first ever solar mission, Aditya L-1.

India’s first solar mission has the potential to fundamentally alter our knowledge of the physics of the Sun and space weather. The Aditya-L1 mission, according to ISRO, is the country’s first Sun-observing spacecraft of the observatory class. The Sun-Earth system’s Lagrangian point (L1) will serve as its location, and it will be in a halo orbit around it.

Future Plans & Upcoming ISRO Projects

In 2023, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch numerous rockets. The Chandrayaan-3 mission to the Moon was the first launch of the year, and it successfully blasted out on August 28. The Aditya-L1 solar mission was launched on September 2 and placed into a halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point. The GSAT-24 communication satellite, the IRNSS-2F navigation satellite, and the INS-2TD radar imaging satellite are among the other missions slated for 2023. Gaganyaan, the first human spaceflight mission from ISRO, is scheduled to launch in 2023, however the precise date has not yet been disclosed.

While the ISRO’s launch schedules for 2023 is ambitious, the organisation has a history of success. One of the top space agencies in the world, ISRO’s missions are advancing our knowledge of the cosmos. At a fraction of the expense, India has been slowly keeping up with the accomplishments of established spacefaring powers.